A camera module is a compact unit consisting of the optics with the camera shutter, the image sensor, a CMOS sensor or CCD sensor, the image signal processor for image processing, electronics for control and the digitalinterface.
Internal interfaces include the MIPI serial and parallel interfaces specified by the MIPIAlliance, the Camera Serial Interface( CSI) and the Camera Parallel Interface( CPI), Low Voltage Differential Signaling ( LVDS) or Ethernet. Connection is via the USB interface, either USB 2.0 or USB 3.0 as SuperSpeed with 5 Gbit/s.
As for internal image processing, it supports automatic band filters, automatic exposure control, automatic white balance and automatic black levelcalibration. In addition, camera modules provide noise reduction, they control color saturation and sharpness, have gamma correction and support scaling. The data of a camera module can be prepared in RAW format, in compressed form or according to different color models. For example, according to the RGB color model, the YUV color model or according to YCbCr.
Camera modules can be used in surveillance systems in smart homes and smart cities; also in drones and in the industrial environment of smart factories.