Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) is the computer-aided numerical control of machine tools. CNC machines are mostly used in metal-cutting manufacturing and are controlled by microprocessors. They can machine complex workpieces with high precision and reproduce them as often as required.
The production of workpieces begins with computer-aided design using CAD systems in which the workpiece is designed. It continues in computer-aided manufacturing with CNC systems. Workpieces are designed so that they can be manufactured in optimized paths of circles, straight lines and curved lines. Servo and linear motors are used to control the workpieces and tools, enabling high-precision positioning. For this purpose, the individual steps are monitored by an optical control system. Since the relation of workpiece to tool can be changed in three axes, this is also referred to as three-axis control.
To optimize the machining time, there are some constraints that must be taken into account during programming. It is about the type of workpiece deformation, which can be cutting or non-cutting, which has a direct influence on the material surface, and which is directly related to the turning speed.
The software for the production of the workpieces is customized and is written in the international standard programming language G- code. The program containing the positioning and control commands is implemented by the Machine Control Unit( MCU).