The video camera is used to capture and record moving images and sound. A distinction is made between video cameras that operate with a separate recording device, i.e. a video recorder, and those with an integrated recorder. The term camcorder has become common for these devices. There are also video cameras for analog video and digital video.
Common to all modern video cameras is the capture technology, which works with one or three CCD sensors. Since CCD sensors are brightness-sensitive but not color-sensitive, in the case of 1-CCD technology the recorded light signal must be separated pixel by pixel into the primary colorsred, green and blue via color filters located in front of the CCD sensor. Bayer filters are used for this color separation. In 3-CCD technology, on the other hand, the primary colors are separated into the primary colors using interference filters or dichroic filters, and each color is fed separately to its own CCD element. The advantage is clear: If all CCD sensors have the same resolution, then the 1-CCD technology has only one third of the resolution of a 3-CCD technology camera.
The signals of the CCDs are stored analog or digital by transferring them via an interface to a video recorder. The video bandwidth is relatively large, which is reflected in the amount of data. Therefore, video cassettes and also miniature hard disks are used for recording, which is done in component video for higher quality requirements.
As additional components, all video cameras contain a microphone or a small MEMS microphone and a viewfinder device, which can also be a small LCD display.
Video cameras can be used in simple version as webcam, IP camera or network camera, with higher resolution for private recordings and with high resolution for semi-professional or professional recordings.