Display interfaces are about connecting monitors or flat panel displays to the computer. The interface establishes the physical connection between the mentioned devices, which are clearly defined by the mechanical connector dimensions, contact assignment, signal levels, impedance and transmission protocol.
Whereas display interfaces used to be designed for analogsignals to which monitors and beamers were connected - example: VGA interface - today they are exclusively digital interfaces for flat screens that can be used universally. The performance of these interfaces has evolved with the screen resolution.
Analog display interfaces
The classic display interface is the VGA interface with analog RGB signal. Monitors and other display devices can be connected to this PC interface. The interface is less suitable for digitally operating flat screens because the analog signals have to be converted into digital signals using an AD converter, which reduces the quality. Other analog interfaces are based on video signals such as the FBAS signal, S-Video or component video.
Digital display interfaces
As far as digital interfaces are concerned, they have evolved with the performance and resolution of displays and large displays. While HD-quality resolution of 1,920 x 1,080 pixels has been the standard in recent years, this will be supplemented in the coming years by the 4K standard and the UHD format with up to 8K. To meet the performance requirements of these displays, known digital interfaces have been upgraded and new ones developed. Other criteria for the digital display interfaces is communication between the computer and the display and the use of controller hardware.
The interface range includes the DVI interface, which supports digital and analog signals as DVI-I and transmits data rates of up to 7.44 Gbit/s in dual- link. With these data rates, displays with a resolution of 4K can be driven out.
The HDMI interface, another digital interface, can also transmit audio information in addition to image data. It supports color depths of 48 bits and supports the enlarged xvYCC color space and also the Adobe RGB color space. The data rates are up to 18 Gbit/s with HDMI 2.0 and allow the connection of displays with 4K standard.
DisplayPort is another high-speed interface that can drive large displays with high resolution. Data transfer rates ofup to 25.92 Gbit/s can be realized via it. They are sufficient for high-resolution displays according to the 5K standard with a resolution of 5,120 x 2,880 pixels at 60 Hz and 8-bit color depth, as well as for the 8K standard, which is also supported by HDMI and SuperMHL.